The Importance of Tajweed when Reciting the Quran
The reciter of the Quran should observe all rules of Tajweed when reciting the Quran.
Some reciters, may dismiss the Tajweed rules as an innovated thing which was not practiced by the previous generations.
In fact some schools do not even bother with these rules, and teach the children, in any manner.
Later when these children start leading people in prayer, many major mistakes can be noticed.
We should try our best to educate ourselves and our children with these very important rules.
At the time of the Companions they did not learn the Tajweed as a knowledge, because all of them could read the Quran properly. The Quran was revealed in their language.
In that time, they did not even need to put dots on the letters. They could differentiate between them easily. After a few generations, after the Muslims started conquering and the people entered Islam in large numbers, people could not read the Quran properly. So they put dots and rules how to read the Quran.
Allah, the Exalted says,
And recite the Quran with Tarteel
Tarteel is reading the Quran appropriately and beautifully. One cannot recite the Quran appropriately and beautifully unless he is applying all rules of Tajweed!
Inshallah, every month we will add, some important rules. We will try to add Arabic text, to make it easy, if that is not possible right away we will use Arabic transliteration.
Al-Istiaatha and al-Basmallah
It is Mustahabb (loved) to recite the Istiaatha before reciting the Quran.
And when you read the Quran make istiaatha from the Shaitan.
It is waajib (compulsory) to say Bismillah at the beginning of the Sura, except when reciting Sura at-Tawbah (also called Sura al-Baraah).
As for Bismillah in the middle of the surah, it is up to the reciter to say it or not.
Rules of Istiadthah and Basmallah
It has four rules:
1.Qatt al-Jamee: To say the Istiadthah, the Basmallah and the beginning of the surah separately.
2.Qatt al-Awal: To say the Istiadthah separately then the Basmallah and the beginning of the Surat.
3.Wasl-Al-Awwal: To say the Istiadthah joined with the Basmallah, then to say the beginning of the Surat separately.
4.Wasl Al-Jamee: To say Istiadthah joined with Basmallah joined with beginning of Surah.
Bismillah between the two Surah
1.Qatt al-Jamee: After finishing the Surat, we should stop, then say the Basmallah then stop, then say the next surah.
2.Qatt Nihayat as-Soorah: To stop at the end of the first surah, then to say Bismillah joining it with the next surah.
3.Wasl Al-Jamee: To join the end of the surah with the Basmallah, and to join with the next surah.
The previous three are all Jaaiz (lawful).
The fourth one is Mamnoo (prohibited). The reason for it being prohibited is that it was said that Bismillah is for the beginnings of the Surah, not the endings. It was also said that not one think that Bismillah is part of the previous surah. Allah knows best.
4.Wasl Al Basmallah: To join the Basmallah with the first surah, then stop, then continue reading the next surah.
The Noon and Meem Mushaddud
The Noon and Meem that have Shuddah should be pronounced with a Ghunnah sound. They should be lengthened for two harakah.
It means to pause or to make a stop by breaking off the breath at the end of the word. There are four kinds:
a. Waqf Taam: it is to pause at the end of a statement where the succeeding statement is not related to the preceding statement, neither by words nor by meaning.
b. Waqf Kaafi: it is to make waqf at the end of a word which has a relationship in the context of the meaning to the words preceding and succeeding it, but has no grammatical connection with the words before or after it.
c. Waqf Hasan: it is to make a waqf at the end of a word which has a linguistic connection with the word appearing after it, nevertheless the words together combine to form a full sentence.
Where Waqf Hasan is made one should not commence the recitation after this word on which the waqf was made, but should restart the recital.
d. Waqf Qabeeh: to make waqf on a word which has both linguistic and manawi relationship (in meaning) with the words following it. On such a waqf the meaning would remain incomplete.
It is not permissible to make Waqf Qabeeh. One should restart the recital from the word preceding the word on which the Waqf Qabeeh was made.
A Saktah is also a stop or a slight pause. The difference between the two is that the breath is broken off in the Waqf, whereas the breath is not broken off in the Saktah.
The Letters of Istilaa
These letters are pronounced in a heavy fashion. They should be differentiated between the letters that are pronounced in a light fashion.
The Letters of Istifaal
These letters are pronounced in a light fashion, opposite of the letters of Istilaa.
This is a tool which beautifies the recitation of a person. It literally means to shake or move. When the letters of the Qalqalah are pronounced in the saakin state, a slight rebound (or echoing sound) of the letter results.
It includes five letters. (Qaaf, Ttaa, baa, jeem, daal)
There are three divisions in Al-Qalqalah.
Kubra, if the Qalqalah comes at the end of the word and it is mushaddad.
Wusta, if the Qalqalah comes at the end of the word.
Sughra, if it comes in the middle of the word.
The Letter Raais pronounced lightly when either it is affixed with the Kasrah (zaire), or has a sukoon and the letter before it has a Kasrah (zaire). Also if it is preceded by a yaa or if you stop on it and before it is a letter with a sukoon, other than the yaa, and before the sukoon letter, there is a Kasrah.
It can be pronounced in a heavy form when it is affixed with the Dhummah (Pesh), or Fathah (Zaber), or has a sukoon and the letter before it has a Dhummah (pesh) or Fathah(zaber). Also if it is saakinah, after an original kasrah, and the letter after it is an istilaa letter.
Also if it is Saakinah, and the letter before it has a kasrah which is aaridah.
Allah can be pronounced in a light and heavy way. It is pronounced in a heavy way if it is preceded with a Dhummah (pesh) or Fathah (zaber), or if it was preceded by a sukoon and before it was a Dhummah or Fathah.
It is pronounced in a light manner when it is preceded by a Kasrah(zaire), or if it was preceded by a sukoon and before it was a Kasrah.